The penguin designs shown so far:
This is the chore list on the fridge at the beginning of the episode, before the penguins appear.
You can see Himari doodled a picture of #3 with her ribbon, before #3 ever appeared.
One of the boys' toothbrush cups also looks suspicious:
Look on little Himari's head:
Switching gears... What appears to be a mascot character duo appears multiple times in the episode.
Their names are "WH."
In the second cap, you can also see another doll beside the kokeshi that has single eyelashes like #3.
The other item between the frames also looks penguin-like.
WH, brought to life in the ending sequence?
So, my question is, does Himari have some kind of power to bring her subconscious imagination to life now?
Is everything in the series happening since we saw her die, something she's dreaming and making up out of details she saw around her house, or (given how heavyhanded the reference was) part of her journey to the afterlife?
The apples were definitely a reference to Night On the Galactic Railroad, and the kids in the episode discussing the novel say, "But, it's all over when you die!"
"Nope. What Kenji's trying to say in the book is that when you die, everything's only just beginning..."
(From their comments about the apples, that would make Ringo some kind of link between Himari and the great unknown outside the universe...? While, I suppose, the brothers are linking her to the small appleseed world she died in?)
Anyway, if something like that's the case, wouldn't be surprised if these fairytales come into play later on in the story (Jack and the Beanstalk, Hansel and Gretel, Snow White, Alice In Wonderland):
Also, the show started on Tanabata. If it breaks for one week at any point in the season, the series finale will air on Christmas (like Utena's did as well). Since the novel takes place on the night of Tanabata and has very Christian themes, it seems really suspicious and deliberate in terms of the timing... :3
We've heard other animals besides the penguins will appear, but there are more animals in background designs than I want to bother putting up caps of. Some of the animal objects from the first episode are used in the ending sequence (the cat outside, the giraffe and pig in the garden), but there are soooo many. On posters, wallpaper, fabric prints... I would guess the animal characters that appear later on will also all have been foreshadowed by stuff we've already seen in the background as well.